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A blog (a truncation of “weblog”)[1] may be a discussion or informational website published on the planet Wide Web consisting of discret...


A blog (a truncation of “weblog”)[1] may be a discussion or informational website published on the planet Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries (posts). Posts are typically displayed in reverse chronological order, in order that the foremost recent post appears first, at the highest of the online page. Until 2009, blogs were usually the work of one individual,[citation needed] occasionally of alittle group, and sometimes covered one subject or topic. In the å2010s, “multi-author blogs” (MABs) emerged, featuring the writing of multiple authors and sometimes professionally edited. MABs from newspapers, other media outlets, universities, think tanks, advocacy groups, and similar institutions account for an increasing quantity of blog traffic. The rise of Twitter and other “microblogging” systems helps integrate MABs and single-author blogs into the journalism . Blog also can be used as a verb, aiming to maintain or add content to a blog. The emergence and growth of blogs within the late 1990s coincided with the arrival of web publishing tools that facilitated the posting of content by non-technical users who did not have much experience with HTML or programming . Previously, a knowledge of such technologies as HTML and File Transfer Protocol had been required to publish content on the online , and early Web users therefore attended be hackers and computer enthusiasts. In the 2010s, the bulk are interactive Web 2.0 websites, allowing visitors to go away online comments, and it's this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites.[2] In that sense, blogging are often seen as a sort of social networking service. Indeed, bloggers don't only produce content to post on their blogs, but also often build social relations with their readers and other bloggers.[3] However, there are high-readership blogs which do not allow comments. Many blogs provide commentary on a specific subject or topic, starting from politics to sports. Others function as more personal online diaries, et al. function more as online brand advertising of a specific individual or company. A typical blog combines text, digital images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media associated with its topic. The ability of readers to go away publicly viewable comments, and interact with other commenters, is a crucial contribution to the recognition of the many blogs. However, blog owners or authors often moderate and filter online comments to get rid of hate speech or other offensive content. Most blogs are primarily textual, although some specialise in art (art blogs), photographs (photoblogs), videos (video blogs or “vlogs”), music (MP3 blogs), and audio (podcasts). In education, blogs are often used as instructional resources. These blogs are referred to as edublogs. Microblogging is another sort of blogging, featuring very short posts. On February 16, 2011[update], there have been over 156 million public blogs alive . On February 20, 2014, there have been around 172 million Tumblr[4] and 75.8 million WordPress[5] blogs alive worldwide. According to critics and other bloggers, Blogger is that the hottest blogging service used today. However, Blogger does not offer public statistics.[6][7] Technorati lists 1.3 million blogs as of February 22, 2014.[8] The term “weblog” was coined by Jorn Barger[9] on December 17, 1997. The short form, “blog”, was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog within the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in April or May 1999.[10][11][12] Shortly thereafter, Evan Williams at Pyra Labs used “blog” as both a noun and verb (“to blog”, meaning “to edit one’s weblog or to post to one’s weblog”) and devised the term “blogger” in connection with Pyra Labs’ Blogger product, leading to the popularization of the terms.[13] Before blogging became popular, digital communities took many forms including Usenet, commercial online services like GEnie, Byte Information Exchange (BIX) and therefore the early CompuServe, e-mail lists,[14] and Bulletin Board Systems (BBS). In the 1990s, Internet forum software created running conversations with “threads”. Threads are topical connections between messages on a virtual “corkboard”. From Flag Day , 1993, Mosaic Communications Corporation maintained their “What’s New”[15] list of latest websites, updated daily and archived monthly. The page was accessible by a special “What’s New” button within the Mosaic browser . The earliest instance of a billboard blog was on the primary business to consumer internet site created in 1995 by Ty, Inc., which featured a blog during a section called “Online Diary”. The entries were maintained by featured Beanie Babies that were voted for monthly by internet site visitors.[16] the fashionable blog evolved from the web diary where people would keep a running account of the events in their personal lives. Most such writers called themselves diarists, journalists, or journalers. Justin Hall, who began personal blogging in 1994 while a student at Swarthmore College, is usually recognized together of the sooner bloggers,[17] as is Jerry Pournelle.[18] Dave Winer’s Scripting News is additionally credited with being one among the older and longer running weblogs.[19][20] The Australian Netguide magazine maintained the Daily Net News[21] on their internet site from 1996. Daily Net News ran links and daily reviews of latest websites, mostly in Australia. Another early blog was Wearable Wireless Webcam, a web shared diary of a person’s personal life combining text, digital video, and digital pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to an internet site in 1994. This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video along side text was mentioned as sousveillance, and such journals were also used as evidence in legal matters. Some early bloggers, like The Misanthropic Bitch, who began in 1997, actually mentioned their online presence as a zine, before the term blog entered common usage. Early blogs were simply manually updated components of common Websites. In 1995, the “Online Diary” on the Ty, Inc. internet site was produced and updated manually before any blogging programs were available. Posts were made to seem in reverse chronological order by manually updating text based HTML code using FTP software in real time several times each day . To users, this offered the looks of a live diary that contained multiple new entries per day. At the start of every new day, new diary entries were manually coded into a replacement HTML file, and therefore the start of every month, diary entries were archived into its own folder which contained a separate HTML page for each day of the month. Then menus that contained links to the foremost recent diary entry were updated manually throughout the location . This text-based method of organizing thousands of files served as a springboard to define future blogging styles that were captured by blogging software developed years later.[16] The evolution of electronic and software tools to facilitate the assembly and maintenance of Web articles posted in reverse chronological order made the publishing process feasible to a way larger and fewer technically-inclined population. Ultimately, this resulted within the distinct class of online publishing that produces blogs we recognize today. as an example , the utilization of some kind of browser-based software is now a typical aspect of “blogging”. Blogs are often hosted by dedicated blog hosting services, on regular web hosting services, or run using blog software. After a slow start, blogging rapidly gained in popularity. Blog usage spread during 1999 and therefore the years following, being further popularized by the near-simultaneous arrival of the primary hosted blog tools: An early milestone within the rise in importance of blogs came in 2002, when many bloggers focused on comments by U.S. Senate legislator Trent Lott.[23] Senator Lott, at a celebration honoring U.S. Senator Strom Thurmond, praised Senator Thurmond by suggesting that the us would are more happy had Thurmond been elected president. Lott’s critics saw these comments as a tacit approval of segregation , a policy advocated by Thurmond’s 1948 presidential campaign. This view was reinforced by documents and recorded interviews dug up by bloggers. (See Josh Marshall’s Talking Points Memo.) Though Lott’s comments were made at a public event attended by the media, no major media organizations reported on his controversial comments until after blogs broke the story. Blogging helped to make a political crisis that forced Lott to step down as legislator . Similarly, blogs were among the driving forces behind the “Rathergate” scandal. To wit: (television journalist) Dan Rather presented documents (on the CBS show 60 Minutes) that conflicted with accepted accounts of President Bush’s military service record. Bloggers declared the documents to be forgeries and presented evidence and arguments in support of that view. Consequently, CBS apologized for what it said were inadequate reporting techniques (see Little Green Footballs). Many bloggers view this scandal because the advent of blogs’ acceptance by the mass media, both as a news source and opinion and as means of applying political pressure.[original research?] The impact of those stories gave greater credibility to blogs as a medium of stories dissemination. Though often seen as partisan gossips,[citation needed] bloggers sometimes lead the way in bringing key information to public light, with mainstream media having to follow their lead. More often, however, news blogs tend to react to material already published by the mainstream media. Meanwhile, an increasing number of experts blogged, making blogs a source of in-depth analysis.[original research?] In Russia, some political bloggers have began to challenge the dominance of official, overwhelmingly pro-government media. Bloggers like Rustem Adagamov and Alexei Navalny have many followers and therefore the latter’s nickname for the ruling United Russia party because the “party of crooks and thieves” has been adopted by anti-regime protesters.[24] This led to the Wall Street Journal calling Navalny “the man Putin fears most” in March 2012.[25] By 2004, the role of blogs became increasingly mainstream, as political consultants, news services, and candidates began using them as tools for outreach and opinion forming. Blogging was established by politicians and political candidates to precise opinions on war and other issues and cemented blogs’ role as a news source. (See Howard Dean and Wesley Clark.) Even politicians not actively campaigning, like the UK’s Labour Party’s MP Tom Watson, began to blog to bond with constituents. In January 2005, Fortune magazine listed eight bloggers whom business people “could not ignore”: Peter Rojas, Xeni Jardin, Ben Trott, Mena Trott, Jonathan Schwartz, Jason Goldman, Robert Scoble, and Jason Calacanis.[26] Israel was among the primary national governments to line up a politician blog.[27] Under David Saranga, the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs became active in adopting Web 2.0 initiatives, including a politician video blog[27] and a political blog.[28] The Foreign Ministry also held a microblogging news conference via Twitter about its war with Hamas, with Saranga answering questions from the general public in common text-messaging abbreviations during a live worldwide news conference .[29] The questions and answers were later posted on IsraelPolitik, the country’s official political blog.[30] The impact of blogging upon the mainstream media has also been acknowledged by governments. In 2009, the presence of the American journalism industry had declined to the purpose that several newspaper corporations were filing for bankruptcy, leading to less direct competition between newspapers within an equivalent circulation area. Discussion emerged on whether the newspaper industry would enjoy a stimulus package by the federal . U.S. President Barack Obama acknowledged the emerging influence of blogging upon society by saying “if the direction of the news is all blogosphere, all opinions, with no serious fact-checking, no serious attempts to place stories in context, then what you'll find yourself getting is people shouting at one another across the void but not tons of mutual understanding”.[31] Between 2009 and 2012, an Orwell Prize for blogging was awarded. There are many various sorts of blogs, differing not only within the sort of content, but also within the way that content is delivered or written. because the popularity of blogging continues to rise, the commercialisation of blogging is rapidly increasing. Many corporations and corporations collaborate with bloggers to extend advertising and have interaction online communities towards their products. within the book Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers, Henry Jenkins stated that “Bloggers take knowledge in their own hands, enabling successful navigation within and between these emerging knowledge cultures. One can see such behaviour as co-optation into commodity culture insofar because it sometimes collaborates with corporate interests, but one also can see it as increasing the range of media culture, providing opportunities for greater inclusiveness, and making more aware of consumers.”[47] As of 2008[update], blogging had become such a mania that a replacement blog was created every second of each minute of each hour of each day.[48] Researchers have actively analyzed the dynamics of how blogs become popular. There are essentially two measures of this: popularity through citations, also as popularity through affiliation (i.e., blogroll). the essential conclusion from studies of the structure of blogs is that while it takes time for a blog to become popular through blogrolls, permalinks can boost popularity more quickly, and are perhaps more indicative of recognition and authority than blogrolls, since they denote that folks are literally reading the blog’s content and deem it valuable or noteworthy in specific cases.[49] The blogdex project was launched by researchers within the MIT Media Lab to crawl the online and gather data from thousands of blogs to research their social properties. Information was gathered by the tool for over four years, during which it autonomously tracked the foremost contagious information spreading within the blog community, ranking it by recency and recognition . It can, therefore,[original research?] be considered the primary instantiation of a memetracker. The project was replaced by tailrank.com which successively has been replaced by spinn3r.com. Blogs are given rankings by Alexa Internet (web hits of Alexa Toolbar users), and formerly by blog program Technorati supported the amount of incoming links (Technorati stopped doing this in 2014). In August 2006, Technorati found that the foremost linked-to blog on the web was that of Chinese actress Xu Jinglei.[50] Chinese media Xinhua reported that this blog received quite 50 million page views, claiming it to be the foremost popular blog within the world.[51] Technorati rated Boing Boing to be the most-read group-written blog.[50] Many bloggers, particularly those engaged in participatory journalism, are amateur journalists, and thus they differentiate themselves from the professional reporters and editors who add mainstream media organizations. Other bloggers are media professionals who are publishing online, instead of via a television station or newspaper, either as an add-on to a standard media presence (e.g., hosting a radio show or writing a column during a paper newspaper), or as their sole journalistic output. Some institutions and organizations see blogging as a way of “getting round the filter” of media “gatekeepers” and pushing their messages on to the general public . Many mainstream journalists, meanwhile, write their own blogs—well over 300, consistent with CyberJournalist.net’s J-blog list.[citation needed] the primary known use of a blog on a news site was in August 1998, when Jonathan Dube of The Charlotte Observer published one chronicling Hurricane Bonnie.[52] Some bloggers have moved over to other media. the subsequent bloggers (and others) have appeared on radio and television: Duncan Black (known widely by his pseudonym, Atrios), Glenn Reynolds (Instapundit), Markos Moulitsas Zúniga (Daily Kos), Alex Steffen (Worldchanging), Ana Marie Cox (Wonkette), Nate Silver (FiveThirtyEight.com), and Ezra Klein (Ezra Klein blog within the American Prospect, now within the Washington Post). In counterpoint, Hugh Hewitt exemplifies a mass media personality who has moved within the other direction, adding to his reach in “old media” by being an influential blogger. Similarly, it had been Emergency Preparedness and Safety recommendations on Air and Online blog articles that captured Surgeon General of the us Richard Carmona’s attention and earned his kudos for the associated broadcasts by chat show host Lisa Tolliver and Westchester Emergency Volunteer Reserves-Medical Reserve Corps Director Marianne Partridge.[53][54] Blogs have also had an influence on minority languages, bringing together scattered speakers and learners; this is often particularly so with blogs in Gaelic languages. Minority language publishing (which may lack economic feasibility) can find its audience through inexpensive blogging. There are samples of bloggers who have published books supported their blogs, e.g., Salam Pax, Ellen Simonetti, Jessica Cutler, ScrappleFace. Blog-based books are given the name blook. A prize for the simplest blog-based book was initiated in 2005,[55] the Lulu Blooker Prize.[56] However, success has been elusive offline, with many of those books not selling also as their blogs. The book supported Julie Powell’s blog “The Julie/Julia Project” was made into the film Julie & Julia, apparently the primary to try to to so. Consumer-generated advertising may be a relatively new and controversial development, and it's created a replacement model of selling communication from businesses to consumers. Among the varied sorts of advertising on blog, the foremost controversial are the sponsored posts.[57] These are blog entries or posts and should be within the sort of feedback, reviews, opinion, videos, etc. and typically contain a link back to the specified site employing a keyword or several keywords. Blogs have led to some disintermediation and a breakdown of the normal advertising model, where companies can jump the advertising agencies (previously the sole interface with the customer) and get in touch with the purchasers directly via social media websites. On the opposite hand, new companies specialised in blog advertising are established, to require advantage of this new development also . However, there are many of us who look negatively on this new development. Some believe that any sort of business activity on blogs will destroy the blogosphere’s credibility.[58] Blogging may result during a range of legal liabilities and other unforeseen consequences.[59] Several cases are brought before the national courts against bloggers concerning problems with defamation or liability. U.S. payouts associated with blogging totaled $17.4 million by 2009; in some cases these are covered by umbrella insurance.[60] The courts have returned with mixed verdicts. Internet Service Providers (ISPs), generally , are immune from liability for information that originates with third parties (U.S. Communications Decency Act and therefore the EU Directive 2000/31/EC). In Doe v. Cahill, the Delaware Supreme Court held that stringent standards had to be met to unmask the anonymous bloggers, and also took the weird step of dismissing the libel case itself (as unfounded under American libel law) instead of referring it back to the court for reconsideration.[61] during a bizarre twist, the Cahills were ready to obtain the identity of John Doe, who clothed to be the person they suspected: the town’s mayor, Councilman Cahill’s political rival. The Cahills amended their original complaint, and therefore the mayor settled the case instead of getting to trial. In January 2007, two prominent Malaysian political bloggers, Jeff Ooi and Ahirudin Attan, were sued by a pro-government newspaper, The New Straits Times Press (Malaysia) Berhad, Kalimullah bin Masheerul Hassan, Hishamuddin bin Aun and Brenden John a/l John Pereira over an alleged defamation. The plaintiff was supported by the Malaysian government.[62] Following the suit, the Malaysian government proposed to “register” all bloggers in Malaysia to raised control parties against their interest.[63] this is often the primary such legal case against bloggers within the country. within the us , blogger Aaron Wall was sued by Traffic Power for defamation and publication of trade secrets in 2005.[64] consistent with Wired magazine, Traffic Power had been “banned from Google for allegedly rigging program results.”[65] Wall and other “white hat” program optimization consultants had exposed Traffic Power in what they claim was an attempt to guard the general public . The case was dismissed for lack of private jurisdiction, and Traffic Power did not appeal within the allowed time.[66] In 2009, NDTV issued a legal notice to Indian blogger Kunte for a blog post criticizing their coverage of the Mumbai attacks.[67] The blogger unconditionally withdrew his post, which resulted in several Indian bloggers criticizing NDTV for trying to silence critics.[68] Employees who blog about elements of their place of employment can begin to affect the reputation of their employer, either during a positive way, if the worker is praising the employer and its workplaces, or during a negative way, if the blogger is making negative comments about the corporate or its practices. generally , attempts by employee bloggers to guard themselves by maintaining anonymity have proved ineffective.[69] In 2009, a controversial and landmark decision by The Hon. Mr Justice Eady refused to grant an order to guard the anonymity of Richard Horton. Horton was a policeman within the uk who blogged about his job under the name “NightJack”.[70] Delta Air Lines fired steward Ellen Simonetti because she posted photographs of herself in uniform on an airplane and since of comments posted on her blog “Queen of Sky: Diary of a Flight Attendant” which the employer deemed inappropriate.[71][72] This case highlighted the difficulty of private blogging and freedom of expression versus employer rights and responsibilities, then it received wide media attention. Simonetti took action against the airline for “wrongful termination, defamation of character and lost future wages”.[73] The suit was postponed while Delta was in bankruptcy proceedings.[74] In early 2006, Erik Ringmar, a senior lecturer at the London School of Economics, was ordered by the convenor of his department to “take down and destroy” his blog during which he discussed the standard of education at the varsity .[75] Mark Jen was terminated in 2005 after 10 days of employment as an assistant product manager at Google for discussing corporate secrets on his personal blog, then called 99zeros and hosted on the Google-owned Blogger service.[76] He blogged about unreleased products and company finances every week before the company’s earnings announcement. He was fired two days after he complied together with his employer’s request to get rid of the sensitive material from his blog.[77] In India, blogger Gaurav Sabnis resigned from IBM after his posts questioned the claims made by a management school.[78] Jessica Cutler, aka “The Washingtonienne”, blogged about her sex life while employed as a congressional assistant. After the blog was discovered and she or he was fired,[79] she wrote a completely unique supported her experiences and blog: The Washingtonienne: a completely unique . As of 2006[update], Cutler is being sued by during a ll|one amongst|one in every of"> one among her former lovers in a case that would establish the extent to which bloggers are obligated to guard the privacy of their real world associates.[80] Catherine Sanderson, a.k.a. Petite Anglaise, lost her job in Paris at a British accountancy firm due to blogging.[81] Although given within the blog during a fairly anonymous manner, a number of the descriptions of the firm and a few of its people were but flattering. Sanderson later won a compensation claim case against British firm, however.[82] On the opposite hand, Penelope Trunk wrote an upbeat article within the Boston Globe in 2006, entitled “Blogs ‘essential’ to an honest career”.[83] She was one among the primary journalists to means that an outsized portion of bloggers are professionals which a well-written blog can help attract employers. Business owners who blog about their business also can run into legal consequences. Mark Cuban, owner of the Dallas Mavericks, was fined during the 2006 NBA playoffs for criticizing NBA officials on the court and in his blog.[84] Blogging can sometimes have unforeseen consequences in politically sensitive areas. In some countries, Internet police or police may monitor blogs and arrest blog authors of commentators. Blogs are often much harder to regulate than broadcast or medium , because an individual can create a blog whose authorship is tough to trace, by using anonymity technology like Tor. As a result, totalitarian and authoritarian regimes often seek to suppress blogs and/or to punish those that maintain them. In Singapore, two ethnic Chinese individuals were imprisoned under the country’s anti-sedition law for posting anti-Muslim remarks in their blogs.[85] Egyptian blogger Kareem Amer was charged with insulting the Egyptian president Mubarak and an Islamic institution through his blog. it's the primary time within the history of Egypt that a blogger was prosecuted. After a quick trial session that happened in Alexandria, the blogger was found guilty and sentenced to prison terms of three years for insulting Islam and inciting sedition, and one year for insulting Mubarak.[86] Egyptian blogger Abdel Monem Mahmoud was arrested in April 2007 for anti-government writings in his blog. Monem may be a member of the then banned Muslim Brotherhood. After the 2011 Egyptian revolution, the Egyptian blogger Maikel Nabil Sanad was charged with insulting the military for a piece of writing he wrote on his personal blog and sentenced to three years.[87] After expressing opinions in his personal blog about the state of the Sudanese soldiers , Jan Pronk, United Nations Special Representative for the Sudan, was given three days notice to go away Sudan. The Sudanese army had demanded his deportation.[88][89] In Myanmar, Nay Phone Latt, a blogger, was sentenced to twenty years in jail for posting a cartoon critical of head of state Than Shwe.[90] One consequence of blogging is that the possibility of online or in-person attacks or threats against the blogger, sometimes without apparent reason. In some cases, bloggers have faced cyberbullying. Kathy Sierra, author of the blog “Creating Passionate Users”,[91] was the target of threats and misogynistic insults to the purpose that she canceled her keynote address at a technology conference in San Diego , fearing for her safety.[92] While a blogger’s anonymity is usually tenuous, Internet trolls who would attack a blogger with threats or insults are often emboldened by the anonymity of the web environment, where some users are known only by a pseudonymous “username” (e.g., “Hacker1984”). Sierra and supporters initiated a web discussion aimed toward countering abusive online behavior[93] and developed a Blogger’s Code of Conduct, which began a rules for behaviour within the online space. The Blogger’s Code of Conduct may be a proposal by Tim O’Reilly for bloggers to enforce civility on their blogs by being civil themselves and moderating comments on their blog. The code was proposed in 2007 thanks to threats made to blogger Kathy Sierra.[94] the thought of the code was first reported by BBC News, who quoted O’Reilly saying, “I do think we'd like some code of conduct around what's acceptable behaviour, i might hope that it doesn’t come through any quite regulation it might come through self-regulation.”[95] O’Reilly et al. came up with an inventory of seven proposed ideas:[96][97][98] These ideas were predictably intensely discussed on the online and within the media. While the web has continued to grow, with online activity and discourse only learning both in positive and negative ways in terms of blog interaction, the proposed Code has drawn more widespread attention to the need of monitoring blogging activity and social norms being as important online as offline.


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