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Domain; What is Domain name?

What is Domain name? A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control w...

What is Domain name?

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A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the web . Domain names are utilized in various networking contexts and for application-specific naming and addressing purposes. generally , a website name identifies a network domain, or it represents an online Protocol (IP) resource, like a private computer wont to access the web , a server computer hosting an internet site, or the online site itself or the other service communicated via the web . In 2017, 330.6 million domain names had been registered.[1] Domain names are formed by the principles and procedures of the name System (DNS). Any name registered within the DNS may be a name . Domain names are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), like the prominent domains com, info, net, edu, and org, and therefore the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains within the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users who wish to attach local area networks to the web , create other publicly accessible Internet resources or run internet sites . The registration of those name s is typically administered by domain name registrars who sell their services to the general public . a totally qualified name (FQDN) may be a name that's completely specified with all labels within the hierarchy of the DNS, having no parts omitted. Labels within the name System are case-insensitive, and should therefore be written in any desired capitalization method, but most ordinarily domain names are written in lowercase in technical contexts.[2] Contents 1 Purpose 2 History 3 name space 3.1 name syntax 3.2 Top-level domains 3.3 Second-level and lower level domains 3.4 Internationalized domain names 4 name registration 4.1 History 4.2 Administration 4.3 Technical requirements and process 4.4 Business models 5 Resale of domain names 6 name confusion 7 Use in internet site hosting 8 Abuse and regulation 8.1 Truth in Domain Names Act 8.2 Seizures 8.3 Suspensions 8.4 Property rights 9 Fictitious name 10 cf. 11 References 12 External links Purpose Domain names serve to spot Internet resources, like computers, networks, and services, with a text-based label that's easier to memorize than the numerical addresses utilized in the web protocols. a website name may represent entire collections of such resources or individual instances. Individual Internet host computers use domain names as host identifiers, also called hostnames. The term hostname is additionally used for the leaf labels within the name system, usually without further subordinate name space. Hostnames appear as a component in Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) for Internet resources like internet sites (e.g., en.wikipedia.org). Domain names also are used as simple identification labels to point ownership or control of a resource. Such examples are the realm identifiers utilized in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), the Domain Keys wont to verify DNS domains in e-mail systems, and in many other Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). a crucial function of domain names is to supply easily recognizable and memorizable names to numerically addressed Internet resources. This abstraction allows any resource to be moved to a special physical location within the address topology of the network, globally or locally in an intranet. Such a move usually requires changing the IP address of a resource and therefore the corresponding translation of this IP address to and from its name . Domain names are wont to establish a singular identity. Organizations can choose a website name that corresponds to their name, helping Internet users to succeed in them easily. A generic domain may be a name that defines a general category, instead of a selected or personal instance, for instance , the name of an industry, instead of a corporation name. Some samples of generic names are books.com, music.com, and travel.info. Companies have created brands supported generic names, and such generic domain names could also be valuable.[3] Domain names are often simply mentioned as domains and name registrants are frequently mentioned as domain owners, although name registration with a registrar doesn't confer any legal ownership of the name , only an prerogative of use for a specific duration of your time . the utilization of domain names in commerce may subject them to trademark law. History The practice of employing a simple memorable abstraction of a host’s numerical address on a network dates back to the ARPANET era, before the arrival of today’s commercial Internet. within the early network, each computer on the network retrieved the hosts file (host.txt) from a computer at SRI (now SRI International),[4][5] which mapped computer hostnames to numerical addresses. The rapid climb of the network made it impossible to take care of a centrally organized hostname registry and in 1983 the name System was introduced on the ARPANET and published by the web Engineering Task Force as RFC 882 and RFC 883. name space Today, the web Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) manages the top-level development and architecture of the web name space. It authorizes name registrars, through which domain names could also be registered and reassigned. The hierarchical name system, organized into zones, each served by name servers. The name space consists of a tree of domain names. Each node within the tree holds information related to the name . The tree sub-divides into zones beginning at the DNS root zone. name syntax a website name consists of 1 or more parts, technically called labels, that are conventionally concatenated, and delimited by dots, like example.com. The right-most label conveys the top-level domain; for instance , the name www.example.com belongs to the top-level domain com. The hierarchy of domains descends from the proper to the left label within the name; each label to the left specifies a subdivision, or subdomain of the domain to the proper . for instance : the label example specifies a node example.com as a subdomain of the com domain, and www may be a label to make www.example.com, a subdomain of example.com. Each label may contain from 1 to 63 octets. The empty label is reserved for the basis node and when fully qualified is expressed because the empty label terminated by a dot. the complete name might not exceed a complete length of 253 ASCII characters in its textual representation.[6] Thus, when employing a single character per label, the limit is 127 levels: 127 characters plus 126 dots have a complete length of 253. In practice, some domain registries may have shorter limits. A hostname may be a name that has a minimum of one associated IP address. For example, the domain names www.example.com and example.com also are hostnames, whereas the com domain isn't . However, other top-level domains, particularly country code top-level domains, may indeed have an IP address, and if so, they're also hostnames. Hostnames impose restrictions on the characters allowed within the corresponding name . a legitimate hostname is additionally a legitimate name , but a legitimate name might not necessarily be valid as a hostname. Top-level domains The top-level domains (TLDs) like com, net and org are the very best level of domain names of the web . Top-level domains form the DNS root zone of the hierarchical name System. Every name ends with a top-level domain label. When the name System was devised within the 1980s, the name space was divided into two main groups of domains.[7] The country code top-level domains (ccTLD) were based on the two-character territory codes of ISO-3166 country abbreviations. additionally , a gaggle of seven generic top-level domains (gTLD) was implemented which represented a group of categories of names and multi-organizations.[8] These were the domains gov, edu, com, mil, org, net, and int. During the expansion of the web , it became desirable to make additional generic top-level domains. As of October 2009, 21 generic top-level domains and 250 two-letter country-code top-level domains existed.[9] additionally , the ARPA domain serves technical purposes within the infrastructure of the name System. During the 32nd International Public ICANN Meeting in Paris in 2008,[10] ICANN started a replacement process of TLD naming policy to require a “significant breakthrough on the introduction of latest generic top-level domains.” This program envisions the supply of the many new or already proposed domains, also as a replacement application and implementation process.[11] Observers believed that the new rules could end in many new top-level domains to be registered.[12] In 2012, the program commenced, and received 1930 applications.[13] By 2016, the milestone of 1000 live gTLD was reached. the web Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) maintains an annotated list of top-level domains within the DNS root zone database.[14] For special purposes, like network testing, documentation, and other applications, IANA also reserves a group of special-use domain names.[15] This list contains domain names like example, local, localhost, and test. Other top-level domain names containing trade marks are registered for corporate use. Cases include brands like BMW, Google, and Canon.[16] Second-level and lower level domains Below the top-level domains within the name hierarchy are the second-level domain (SLD) names. These are the names on to the left of .com, .net, and therefore the other top-level domains. As an example, within the domain example.co.uk, co is that the second-level domain. Next are third-level domains, which are written immediately to the left of a second-level domain. There are often fourth- and fifth-level domains, and so on, with virtually no limitation. An example of an operational name with four levels of domain labels is sos.state.oh.us. Each label is separated by a period (dot). ‘sos’ is claimed to be a sub-domain of ‘state.oh.us’, and ‘state’ a sub-domain of ‘oh.us’, etc. generally , subdomains are domains subordinate to their parent domain. An example of very deep levels of subdomain ordering are the IPv6 reverse resolution DNS zones, e.g., 1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.ip6.arpa, which is that the reverse DNS resolution name for the IP address of a loopback interface, or the localhost name. Second-level (or lower-level, counting on the established parent hierarchy) domain names are often created supported the name of a corporation (e.g., bbc.co.uk), product or service (e.g. hotmail.com). Below these levels, subsequent name component has been wont to designate a specific host server. Therefore, ftp.example.com could be an FTP server, www.example.com would be a World Wide Web server, and mail.example.com might be an email server, each intended to perform only the implied function. Modern technology allows multiple physical servers with either different (cf. load balancing) or maybe identical addresses (cf. anycast) to serve one hostname or name , or multiple domain names to be served by one computer. The latter is extremely popular in Web hosting service centers, where service providers host the websites of the many organizations on just a couple of servers. The hierarchical DNS labels or components of domain names are separated during a fully qualified name by the complete stop (dot, .). Internationalized name s Main article: Internationalized domain name The list allowed within the name System is predicated on ASCII and doesn't allow the representation of names and words of the many languages in their native scripts or alphabets. ICANN approved the Internationalized name (IDNA) system, which maps Unicode strings utilized in application user interfaces into the valid DNS list by an encoding called Punycode. for instance , københavn.eu is mapped to xn--kbenhavn-54a.eu. Many registries have adopted IDNA. name registration History the primary commercial Internet name , within the TLD com, was registered on 15 March 1985 within the name symbolics.com by Symbolics Inc., a computer systems firm in Cambridge, Massachusetts. By 1992, fewer than 15,000 com domains had been registered. within the half-moon of 2015, 294 million domain names had been registered.[17] an outsized fraction of them are within the com TLD, which as of December 21, 2014, had 115.6 million domain names,[18] including 11.9 million online business and e-commerce sites, 4.3 million entertainment sites, 3.1 million finance related sites, and 1.8 million sports sites.[19] As of July 2012 the com TLD had more registrations than all of the ccTLDs combined.[20] Administration the proper to use a website name is delegated by name registrars, which are accredited by the web Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the organization charged with overseeing the name and number systems of the web . additionally to ICANN, each top-level domain (TLD) is maintained and serviced technically by an administrative organization operating a registry. A registry is liable for maintaining the database of names registered within the TLD it administers. The registry receives registration information from each name registrar authorized to assign names within the corresponding TLD and publishes the knowledge employing a special service, the WHOIS protocol. Registries and registrars usually charge an annual fee for the service of delegating a website name to a user and providing a default set of name servers. Often, this transaction is termed a purchase or lease of the name , and therefore the registrant may sometimes be called an “owner”, but no such legal relationship is really related to the transaction, only the prerogative to use the name . More correctly, authorized users are referred to as “registrants” or as “domain holders”. ICANN publishes the entire list of TLD registries and name registrars. Registrant information related to domain names is maintained in a web database accessible with the WHOIS protocol. for many of the 250 country code top-level domains (ccTLDs), the domain registries maintain the WHOIS (Registrant, name servers, expiration dates, etc.) information. Some name registries, often called network information centers (NIC), also function as registrars to end-users. the main generic top-level domain registries, like for the com, net, org, info domains et al. , use a registry-registrar model consisting of many name registrars (see lists at ICANN[21] or VeriSign).[22] during this method of management, the registry only manages the name database and therefore the relationship with the registrars. The registrants (users of a website name) are customers of the registrar, in some cases through additional layers of resellers. There also are a couple of other alternative DNS root providers that attempt to compete or complement ICANN’s role of name administration, however, most of them did not receive wide recognition, and thus domain names offered by those alternative roots can't be used universally on most other internet-connecting machines without additional dedicated configurations. Technical requirements and process within the process of registering a website name and maintaining authority over the new name space created, registrars use several key pieces of data connected with a domain: Administrative contact. A registrant usually designates an administrative contact to manage the name . the executive contact usually has the very best level of control over a website . Management functions delegated to the executive contacts may include management of all business information, like name of record, postal address, and get in touch with information of the official registrant of the domain and therefore the obligation to evolve to the wants of the domain registry so as to retain the proper to use a website name. Furthermore, the executive contact installs additional contact information for technical and billing functions. Technical contact. The technical contact manages the name servers of a website name. The functions of a technical contact include assuring conformance of the configurations of the name with the wants of the domain registry, maintaining the domain zone records, and providing continuous functionality of the name servers (that results in the accessibility of the domain name). Billing contact. The party liable for receiving billing invoices from the name registrar and paying applicable fees. Name servers. Most registrars provide two or more name servers as a part of the registration service. However, a registrant may specify its own authoritative name servers to host a domain’s resource records. The registrar’s policies govern the amount of servers and therefore the sort of server information required. Some providers require a hostname and therefore the corresponding IP address or simply the hostname, which must be resolvable either within the new domain, or exist elsewhere. supported traditional requirements (RFC 1034), typically a minimum of two servers is required. a website name consists of 1 or more labels, each of which is made from the set of ASCII letters, digits, and hyphens (a-z, A-Z, 0-9, -), but not starting or ending with a hyphen. The labels are case-insensitive; for instance , ‘label’ is like ‘Label’ or ‘LABEL’. within the textual representation of a website name, the labels are separated by a period (period). Business models Domain names are often seen in analogy to land therein domain names are foundations on which an internet site are often built, and therefore the highest quality domain names, like sought-after land , tend to hold significant value, usually thanks to their online brand-building potential, use in advertising, program optimization, and lots of other criteria. a couple of companies have offered low-cost, below-cost or maybe free domain registration with a spread of models adopted to recoup the prices to the provider. These usually require that domains be hosted on their website within a framework or portal that has advertising wrapped round the domain holder’s content, revenue from which allows the provider to recoup the prices . Domain registrations were freed from charge when the DNS was new. a website holder may provide an infinite number of subdomains in their domain. for instance , the owner of example.org could provide subdomains like foo.example.org and foo.bar.example.org to interested parties. Many desirable domain names are already assigned and users must look for other acceptable names, using Web-based search features, or WHOIS and dig OS tools. Many registrars have implemented name suggestion tools which search name databases and suggest available alternative domain names associated with keywords provided by the user. Resale of domain names Main article: List of costliest domain names The business of resale of registered domain names is understood because the domain aftermarket. Various factors influence the perceived value or market price of a website name. Most of the high-prize domain sales are administered privately. name confusion Intercapping is usually wont to emphasize the meaning of a website name, because DNS names aren't case-sensitive. Some names could also be misinterpreted in certain uses of capitalization. for instance : Who Represents, a database of artists and agents, chose whorepresents.com[23], which may be misread. In such situations, the right meaning could also be clarified by placement of hyphens when registering a website name. as an example , Experts Exchange, a programmers’ discussion site, used expertsexchange.com, but changed its name to experts-exchange.com.[24] Use in internet site hosting The name may be a component of a consistent resource locator (URL) wont to access internet sites , for example: URL: http://www.example.net/index.html Top-level domain: net Second-level domain: example Hostname: www a website name may point to multiple IP addresses to supply server redundancy for the services offered, a feature that's wont to manage the traffic of huge , popular internet sites . Web hosting services, on the opposite hand, run servers that are typically assigned just one or a couple of addresses while serving websites for several domains, a way mentioned as virtual web hosting. Such IP address overloading requires that every request identifies the name being referenced, as an example by using the HTTP request header field Host:, or Server Name Indication. Abuse and regulation Critics often claim abuse of administrative power over domain names. Particularly noteworthy was the VeriSign Site Finder system which redirected all unregistered .com and .net domains to a VeriSign webpage. for instance , at a public meeting with VeriSign to air technical concerns about SiteFinder,[25] numerous people, active within the IETF and other technical bodies, explained how they were surprised by VeriSign’s changing the elemental behavior of a serious component of Internet infrastructure, not having obtained the customary consensus. SiteFinder, at first, assumed every Internet query was for an internet site , and it monetized queries for incorrect domain names, taking the user to VeriSign’s search site. Unfortunately, other applications, like many implementations of email, treat a scarcity of response to a website name query as a sign that the domain doesn't exist, which the message are often treated as undeliverable. the first VeriSign implementation broke this assumption for mail, because it might always resolve an erroneous name thereto of SiteFinder. While VeriSign later changed SiteFinder’s behaviour with reference to email, there was still widespread protest about VeriSign’s action being more in its financial interest than within the interest of the web infrastructure component that VeriSign was the steward. Despite widespread criticism, VeriSign only reluctantly removed it after the web Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) threatened to revoke its contract to administer the basis name servers. ICANN published the extensive set of letters exchanged, committee reports, and ICANN decisions.[26] there's also significant disquiet regarding the United States’ political influence over ICANN. This was a big issue within the plan to create a .xxx top-level domain and sparked greater interest in alternative DNS roots that might be beyond the control of any single country.[27] Additionally, there are numerous accusations of name front running, whereby registrars, when given whois queries, automatically register the name for themselves. Network Solutions has been accused of this.[28] Truth in Domain Names Act within the us , the reality in Domain Names Act of 2003, together with the PROTECT Act of 2003, forbids the utilization of a misleading name with the intention of attracting Internet users into visiting Internet pornography sites. the reality in Domain Names Act follows the more general Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act passed in 1999 aimed toward preventing typosquatting and deceptive use of names and trademarks in domain names. Seizures Seizure notices absolutepoker.com channelsurfing.net libertyreserve.com within the early 21st century, the US Department of Justice (DOJ) pursued the seizure of domain names, supported the legal theory that domain names constitute property wont to engage in criminal activity, and thus are subject to forfeiture. For example, within the seizure of the name of a gambling website, the DOJ referenced 18 U.S.C. § 981 and 18 U.S.C. § 1955(d).[29][1] In 2013 the United States government seized Liberty Reserve, citing 18 U.S.C. § 982(a)(1).[30] The U.S. Congress passed the Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act in 2010. Consumer Electronics Association vice chairman Michael Petricone was worried that seizure was a blunt instrument that would harm legitimate businesses.[31][32] After a joint operation in February 15, 2011, the DOJ and therefore the Department of Homeland Security claimed to possess seized ten domains of internet sites involved in advertising and distributing kiddie porn , but also mistakenly seized the name of an outsized DNS provider, temporarily replacing 84,000 websites with seizure notices.[33] within the uk , the Police property Crime Unit has been attempting to seize domain names from registrars without court orders.[34] Suspensions PIPCU and other UK enforcement organisations make domain suspension requests to Nominet which they process on the idea of breach of terms and conditions. Around 16,000 domains are suspended annually, and about 80% of the requests originate from PIPCU.[35] Property rights due to the value it represents, the ecu Court of Human Rights has ruled that the prerogative to a website name is protected as property under article 1 of Protocol 1 to the ecu Convention on Human Rights.[36] Fictitious name A fictitious name may be a name utilized in a piece of fiction or popular culture to ask a website that doesn't actually exist, often with invalid or unofficial top-level domains like “.web”, a usage exactly analogous to the dummy 555 phone number prefix utilized in film and other media. The canonical fictitious name is “example.com”, specifically put aside by IANA in RFC 2606 for such use, along side the .example TLD. Domain names utilized in works of fiction have often been registered within the DNS, either by their creators or by cybersquatters attempting to take advantage of it. This phenomenon prompted NBC to get the name Hornymanatee.com after talk-show host Conan O’Brien spoke the name while ad-libbing on his show. O’Brien subsequently created an internet site supported the concept and used it as a running gag on the show.

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