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SSL Certificate

What is SSL Certificate? “ Identity certificate” redirects here. For other uses, see Identity certificate (disambiguation). Client a...

What is SSL Certificate?

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Identity certificate” redirects here. For other uses, see Identity certificate (disambiguation). Client and server certificate of *.wikipedia.org In cryptography, a public key certificate, also referred to as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document wont to prove the ownership of a public key.[1] The certificate includes information about the key, information about the identity of its owner (called the subject), and therefore the digital signature of an entity that has verified the certificate’s contents (called the issuer). If the signature is valid, and therefore the software examining the certificate trusts the issuer, then it can use that key to speak securely with the certificate’s subject. In email encryption, code signing, and e-signature systems, a certificate’s subject is usually an individual or organization. However, in Transport Layer Security (TLS) a certificate’s subject is usually a computer or other device, though TLS certificates may identify organizations or individuals additionally to their core role in identifying devices. TLS, sometimes called by its older name Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is notable for being a neighborhood of HTTPS, a protocol for securely browsing the online . during a typical public-key infrastructure (PKI) scheme, the certificate issuer may be a certificate authority (CA), usually a corporation that charges customers to issue certificates for them. against this , during a web of trust scheme, individuals sign each other’s keys directly, during a format that performs an identical function to a public key certificate. the foremost common format for public key certificates is defined by X.509.[2] Because X.509 is extremely general, the format is further constrained by profiles defined surely use cases, like Public Key Infrastructure (X.509) as defined in RFC 5280. Contents 1 sorts of certificate 1.1 TLS/SSL server certificate 1.2 TLS/SSL client certificate 1.3 Email certificate 1.4 Code signing certificate 1.5 Qualified certificate 1.6 Root certificate 1.7 Intermediate certificate 1.8 End-entity or leaf certificate 1.9 Self-signed certificate 2 Common fields 3 Sample Certificate 4 Usage within the European Union 5 Certificate authorities 6 Root programs 7 Certificates and website security 7.1 Validation levels 7.1.1 Domain validation 7.1.2 Organization validation 7.1.3 Extended validation 7.2 Weaknesses 7.3 Usefulness versus unsecured internet sites 8 Standards 9 cf. 10 References sorts of certificate The roles of root certificate, intermediate certificate and end-entity certificate as within the chain of trust. TLS/SSL server certificate In TLS (an updated replacement for SSL), a server is required to present a certificate as a part of the initial connection setup. A client connecting thereto server will perform the certification path validation algorithm: the topic of the certificate matches the hostname (i.e. domain name) to which the client is trying to connect; The certificate is signed by a trusted certificate authority. the first hostname (domain name of the website) is listed because the Common Name within the discipline of the certificate. A certificate could also be valid for multiple hostnames (multiple websites). Such certificates are commonly called Subject Alternative Name (SAN) certificates or Unified Communications Certificates (UCC). These certificates contain the sector Subject Alternative Name, though many CAs also will put them into the topic Common Name field for backward compatibility. If a number of the hostnames contain an asterisk (*), a certificate can also be called a wildcard certificate. A TLS server could also be configured with a self-signed certificate. When that's the case, clients will generally be unable to verify the certificate, and can terminate the connection unless certificate checking is disabled. As per the applications, SSL Certificates are often classified into three types:[3] Domain Validation SSL; Organization Validation SSL; Extended Validation SSL. TLS/SSL client certificate Client certificates are less common than server certificates, and are wont to authenticate the client connecting to a TLS service, as an example to supply access control. Because most services provide access to individuals, instead of devices, most client certificates contain an email address or personal name instead of a hostname. Also, because authentication is typically managed by the service provider, client certificates aren't usually issued by a public CA that gives server certificates. Instead, the operator of a service that needs client certificates will usually operate their own internal CA to issue them. Client certificates are supported by many web browsers, but most services use passwords and cookies to authenticate users, rather than client certificates. Client certificates are more common in RPC systems, where they're wont to authenticate devices to make sure that only authorized devices can make sure RPC calls. Email certificate within the S/MIME protocol for secure email, senders got to discover which public key to use for any given recipient. They get this information from an email certificate. Some publicly trusted certificate authorities provide email certificates, but more commonly S/MIME is used when communicating within a given organization, which organization runs its own CA, which is trusted by participants therein email system. Code signing certificate Main article: Code signing Certificates also can be wont to validate signatures on programs to make sure they weren't tampered with during delivery. Qualified certificate Main article: Qualified digital certificate A certificate identifying a private , typically for electronic signature purposes. These are most ordinarily utilized in Europe, where the eIDAS regulation standardizes them and requires their recognition. Root certificate Main article: Root certificate A self-signed certificate wont to sign other certificates. Also sometimes called a trust anchor. Intermediate certificate A certificate wont to sign other certificates. An intermediate certificate must be signed by another intermediate certificate, or a root certificate. End-entity or leaf certificate Any certificate that can't be wont to sign other certificates. as an example , TLS/SSL server and client certificates, email certificates, code signing certificates, and qualified certificates are all end-entity certificates. Self-signed certificate Main article: Self-signed certificate A certificate with a topic that matches its issuer, and a signature which will be verified by its own public key. Most sorts of certificate are often self-signed. Self-signed certificates also are often called snake oil certificates to stress their untrustworthiness. Common fields See also: X.509 § Structure of a certificate These are a number of the foremost common fields in certificates. Most certificates contain variety of fields ex-directory here. Note that in terms of a certificate’s X.509 representation, a certificate isn't “flat” but contains these fields nested in various structures within the certificate. Serial Number: wont to uniquely identify the certificate within a CA’s systems. especially this is often wont to track revocation information. Subject: The entity a certificate belongs to: a machine, a private , or a corporation . Issuer: The entity that verified the knowledge and signed the certificate. Not Before: The earliest time and date on which the certificate is valid. Usually set to a couple of hours or days before the instant the certificate was issued, to avoid clock skew problems. Not After: The time and date past which the certificate is not any longer valid. Key Usage: The valid cryptographic uses of the certificate’s public key. Common values include digital signature validation, key encipherment, and certificate signing. Extended Key Usage: The applications during which the certificate could also be used. Common values include TLS server authentication, email protection, and code signing. Public Key: A public key belonging to the certificate subject. Signature Algorithm: The algorithm wont to sign the general public key certificate. Signature: A signature of the certificate body by the issuer’s private key. Sample Certificate this is often an example of a decoded SSL/TLS certificate retrieved from SSL.com’s website. The issuer’s common name (CN) is shown as SSL.com EV SSL Intermediate CA RSA R3, identifying this as an Extended Validation (EV) certificate. Validated information about the website’s owner (SSL Corp) is found within the discipline . The X509v3 Subject Alternative Name field contains an inventory of domain names covered by the certificate. The X509v3 Extended Key Usage and X509v3 Key Usage fields show all appropriate uses. Certificate: Data: Version: 3 (0x2) Serial Number: 72:14:11:d3:d7:e0:fd:02:aa:b0:4e:90:09:d4:db:31 Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption Issuer: C=US, ST=Texas, L=Houston, O=SSL Corp, CN=SSL.com EV SSL Intermediate CA RSA R3 Validity Not Before: Apr 18 22:15:06 2019 GMT Not After : Apr 17 22:15:06 2021 GMT Subject: C=US, ST=Texas, L=Houston, O=SSL Corp/serialNumber=NV20081614243, CN=www.ssl.com/postalCode=77098/businessCategory=Private Organization/street=3100 Richmond Ave/jurisdictionST=Nevada/jurisdictionC=US Subject Public Key Info: Public Key Algorithm: rsaEncryption RSA Public-Key: (2048 bit) Modulus: 00:ad:0f:ef:c1:97:5a:9b:d8:1e … Exponent: 65537 (0x10001) X509v3 extensions: X509v3 Authority Key Identifier: keyid:BF:C1:5A:87:FF:28:FA:41:3D:FD:B7:4F:E4:1D:AF:A0:61:58:29:BD Authority Information Access: CA Issuers - URI:http://www.ssl.com/repository/SSLcom-SubCA-EV-SSL-RSA-4096-R3.crt OCSP - URI:http://ocsps.ssl.com X509v3 Subject Alternative Name: DNS:www.ssl.com, DNS:answers.ssl.com, DNS:faq.ssl.com, DNS:info.ssl.com, DNS:links.ssl.com, DNS:reseller.ssl.com, DNS:secure.ssl.com, DNS:ssl.com, DNS:support.ssl.com, DNS:sws.ssl.com, DNS:tools.ssl.com X509v3 Certificate Policies: Policy: 2.23.140.1.1 Policy: 1.2.616.1.113527.2.5.1.1 Policy: 1.3.6.1.4.1.38064.1.1.1.5 CPS: https://www.ssl.com/repository X509v3 Extended Key Usage: TLS Web Client Authentication, TLS Web Server Authentication X509v3 CRL Distribution Points: Full Name: URI:http://crls.ssl.com/SSLcom-SubCA-EV-SSL-RSA-4096-R3.crl X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: E7:37:48:DE:7D:C2:E1:9D:D0:11:25:21:B8:00:33:63:06:27:C1:5B X509v3 Key Usage: critical Digital Signature, Key Encipherment CT Precertificate SCTs: Signed Certificate Timestamp: Version : v1 (0x0) Log ID : 87:75:BF:E7:59:7C:F8:8C:43:99 … Timestamp : Apr 18 22:25:08.574 2019 GMT Extensions: none Signature : ecdsa-with-SHA256 30:44:02:20:40:51:53:90:C6:A2 … Signed Certificate Timestamp: Version : v1 (0x0) Log ID : A4:B9:09:90:B4:18:58:14:87:BB … Timestamp : Apr 18 22:25:08.461 2019 GMT Extensions: none Signature : ecdsa-with-SHA256 30:45:02:20:43:80:9E:19:90:FD … Signed Certificate Timestamp: Version : v1 (0x0) Log ID : 55:81:D4:C2:16:90:36:01:4A:EA … Timestamp : Apr 18 22:25:08.769 2019 GMT Extensions: none Signature : ecdsa-with-SHA256 30:45:02:21:00:C1:3E:9F:F0:40 … Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption 36:07:e7:3b:b7:45:97:ca:4d:6c … Usage within the European Union within the European Union, electronic signatures on legal documents are commonly performed using digital signatures with accompanying identity certificates. this is often largely because such signatures are granted an equivalent enforceability as handwritten signatures under eIDAS, an EU regulation.[citation needed] Certificate authorities Main article: Certificate authority The procedure of obtaining a Public key certificate within the X.509 trust model, a certificate authority (CA) is liable for signing certificates. These certificates act as an introduction between two parties, which suggests that a CA acts as a trusted third party. A CA processes requests from people or organizations requesting certificates (called subscribers), verifies the knowledge , and potentially signs an end-entity certificate supported that information. To perform this role effectively, a CA must have one or more broadly trusted root certificates or intermediate certificates and therefore the corresponding private keys. CAs may achieve this broad trust by having their root certificates included in popular software, or by obtaining a cross-signature from another CA delegating trust. Other CAs are trusted within a comparatively small community, sort of a business, and are distributed by other mechanisms like Windows Group Policy. Certificate authorities also are liable for maintaining up-to-date revocation information about certificates they need issued, indicating whether certificates are still valid. they supply this information through Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) and/or Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs). Root programs Some major software contain an inventory of certificate authorities that are trusted by default. This makes it easier for end-users to validate certificates, and easier for people or organizations that request certificates to understand which certificate authorities can issue a certificate which will be broadly trusted. this is often particularly important in HTTPS, where an internet site operator generally wants to urge a certificate that's trusted by nearly all potential visitors to their internet site . The policies and processes a provider uses to make a decision which certificate authorities their software should trust are called root programs. the foremost influential root programs are: Microsoft Root Program Apple Root Program Mozilla Root Program Oracle Java root program Adobe AATL Adobe Approved Trust List and EUTL root programs (used for document signing) Browsers aside from Firefox generally use the operating system’s facilities to make a decision which certificate authorities are trusted. So, as an example , Chrome on Windows trusts the certificate authorities included within the Microsoft Root Program, while on macOS or iOS, Chrome trusts the certificate authorities within the Apple Root Program.[4] Edge and Safari use their respective OS trust stores also , but each is merely available on one OS. Firefox uses the Mozilla Root Program trust store on all platforms. The Mozilla Root Program is operated publicly, and its certificate list is a component of the open source Firefox browser , so it's broadly used outside Firefox. as an example , while there's no common Linux Root Program, many Linux distributions, like Debian,[5] include a package that periodically copies the contents of the Firefox trust list, which is then employed by applications. Root programs generally provide a group of valid purposes with the certificates they include. as an example , some CAs could also be considered trusted for issuing TLS server certificates, but not for code signing certificates. this is often indicated with a group of trust bits during a root certificate storage system. Certificates and website security the foremost common use of certificates is for HTTPS-based internet sites . an internet browser validates that an HTTPS web server is authentic, in order that the user can feel secure that his/her interaction with the online site has no eavesdroppers which the online site is who it claims to be. This security is vital for electronic commerce. In practice, an internet site operator obtains a certificate by applying to a certificate authority with a certificate signing request. The certificate request is an electronic document that contains the online site name, company information and therefore the public key. The certificate provider signs the request, thus producing a public certificate. During web browsing, this public certificate is served to any browser that connects to the online site and proves to the online browser that the provider believes it's issued a certificate to the owner of the online site. As an example, when a user connects to https://www.example.com/ with their browser, if the browser doesn't give any certificate warning message, then the user are often theoretically sure that interacting with https://www.example.com/ is like interacting with the entity in touch with the e-mail address listed within the public registrar under “example.com”, albeit that email address might not be displayed anywhere on the online site. No other surety of any kind is implied. Further, the connection between the purchaser of the certificate, the operator of the online site, and therefore the generator of the online site content could also be tenuous and isn't guaranteed. At best, the certificate guarantees uniqueness of the online site, as long as the online site itself has not been compromised (hacked) or the certificate issuing process subverted. A certificate provider can prefer to issue three sorts of certificates, each requiring its own degree of vetting rigor. so as of accelerating rigor (and naturally, cost) they are: Domain Validation, Organization Validation and Extended Validation. These rigors are loosely prescribed by voluntary participants within the CA/Browser Forum. Validation levels Domain validation Main article: Domain-validated certificate A certificate provider will issue a website Validation (DV) class certificate to a purchaser if the purchaser can demonstrate one vetting criterion: the proper to administratively manage a website name. Organization validation A certificate provider will issue a corporation Validation (OV) class certificate to a purchaser if the purchaser can meet two criteria: the proper to administratively manage the name in question, and maybe , the organization’s actual existence as a legal entity. A certificate provider publishes its OV vetting criteria through its Certificate Policy. Extended validation Main article: Extended Validation Certificate to accumulate an Extended Validation (EV) certificate, the purchaser must persuade the certificate provider of its legal identity, including manual verification checks by a person's . like OV certificates, a certificate provider publishes its EV vetting criteria through its Certificate Policy. Browsers will generally offer users a visible indication of the legal identity when a site presents an EV certificate. Most browsers show the legal name before the domain, and use a bright green color to spotlight the change. during this way, the user can see the legal identity of the owner has been verified. Weaknesses an internet browser will give no warning to the user if an internet site suddenly presents a special certificate, albeit that certificate features a lower number of key bits, albeit it's a special provider, and albeit the previous certificate had an expiry date far into the longer term .[citation needed] However a change from an EV certificate to a non-EV certificate are going to be apparent because the green bar will not be displayed. Where certificate providers are under the jurisdiction of governments, those governments may have the liberty to order the provider to get any certificate, like for the needs of enforcement . Subsidiary wholesale certificate providers even have the liberty to get any certificate. All web browsers accompany an in depth built-in list of trusted root certificates, many of which are controlled by organizations which will be unfamiliar to the user.[1] Each of those organizations is liberal to issue any certificate for any internet site and have the guarantee that web browsers that include its root certificates will accept it as genuine. during this instance, end users must believe the developer of the browser software to manage its built-in list of certificates and on the certificate providers to behave correctly and to tell the browser developer of problematic certificates. While uncommon, there are incidents during which fraudulent certificates are issued: in some cases, the browsers have detected the fraud; in others, a while passed before browser developers removed these certificates from their software.[6][7] The list of built-in certificates is additionally not limited to those provided by the browser developer: users (and to a degree applications) are liberal to extend the list for special purposes like for company intranets.[8] this suggests that if someone gains access to a machine and may install a replacement root certificate within the browser, that browser will recognize websites that use the inserted certificate as legitimate. For provable security, this reliance on something external to the system has the consequence that any public key certification scheme has got to believe some special setup assumption, like the existence of a certificate authority.[9] Usefulness versus unsecured internet sites In spite of the restrictions described above, certificate-authenticated TLS is taken into account mandatory by all security guidelines whenever an internet site hosts tip or performs material transactions. this is often because, in practice, in spite of the weaknesses described above, internet sites secured by public key certificates are still safer than unsecured http:// internet sites .[10] Standards The National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) Computer Security Division[11] provides guidance documents for Public Key Certificates: SP 800-32 Introduction to Public Key Technology and therefore the Federal PKI Infrastructure[12] SP 800-25 agency Use of Public Key Technology for Digital Signatures and Authentication.




Credit/Courtesy- Wikipedia/Comodo Enterprise

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