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What is Wordpress? WordPress ( may be a content management system (CMS) written in PHP[4] paired with a MySQL, MariaDB, o...

What is Wordpress?

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WordPress ( may be a content management system (CMS) written in PHP[4] paired with a MySQL, MariaDB, or SQLite database.[5] Features include a plugin architecture and a template system, mentioned within WordPress as Themes. WordPress was originally created as a blog-publishing system but has evolved to support other sorts of web page including more traditional mailing lists and forums, media galleries, membership sites, learning management systems (LMS) and online stores. WordPress is employed by quite 60 million websites,[6] including 33.6% of the highest 10 million websites as of April 2019,[7][8] WordPress is one among the foremost popular content management system solutions in use.[9] WordPress has also been used for other application domains like pervasive display systems (PDS).[10] WordPress was released on May 27, 2003, by its founders, Matt Mullenweg[1] and Mike Little,[11][12] as a fork of b2/cafelog. The software is released under the GPLv2 (or later) license.[13] To function, WordPress has got to be installed on an internet server, either a part of an online hosting service like or a computer running the software package so as to function a network host in its title .[14] an area computer could also be used for single-user testing and learning purposes.

Overview[edit] “WordPress may be a factory that creates webpages”[15] may be a core analogy designed to clarify the functions of WordPress: it stores content and enables a user to make and publish webpages, requiring nothing beyond a website and a hosting service. WordPress features a web template system employing a template processor. Its architecture may be a front controller, routing all requests for non-static URIs to one PHP file which parses the URI and identifies the target page. this enables support for more human-readable permalinks.[16] Themes[edit] WordPress users may install and switch among different themes. Themes allow users to vary the design and functionality of a WordPress website without altering the core code or site content. Every WordPress website requires a minimum of one theme to be present and each theme should be designed using WordPress standards with structured PHP, valid HTML (HyperText Markup Language), and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Themes could also be directly installed using the WordPress “Appearance” administration tool within the dashboard, or theme folders could also be copied directly into the themes directory, for instance via FTP.[17] The PHP, HTML and CSS found in themes are often directly modified to change theme behavior, or a topic are often a “child” theme which inherits settings from another theme and selectively overrides features.[18] WordPress themes are generally classified into two categories: free and premium. Many free themes are listed within the WordPress theme directory (also referred to as the repository), and premium themes are available for purchase from marketplaces and individualWordPress developers. WordPress users can also create and develop their own custom themes. The free theme Underscores created by the WordPress developers has become a well-liked basis for brand spanking new themes.[19] Plugins[edit] WordPress’ plugin architecture allows users to increase the features and functionality of an internet site or blog. As of January 2020, has 55,487 plugins available,[20] each of which offers custom functions and features enabling users to tailor their sites to their specific needs. However, this doesn't include the premium plugins that are available (approximately 1,500+), which can not be listed within the repository. These customizations range from program optimization (SEO), to client portals wont to display private information to logged in users, to content management systems, to content displaying features, like the addition of widgets and navigation bars. Not all available plugins are always abreast with the upgrades and as a result they'll not function properly or might not function in the least . Most plugins are available through WordPress themselves, either via downloading them and installing the files manually via FTP or through the WordPress dashboard. However, many third parties offer plugins through their own websites, many of which are paid packages. Web developers who wish to develop plugins got to learn WordPress’ hook system which consists of over 300 hooks divided into two categories: action hooks and filter hooks. Mobile applications[edit] Phone apps for WordPress exist for WebOS,[21] Android,[22] iOS (iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad),[23][24] Windows Phone, and BlackBerry.[25] These applications, designed by Automattic, have options like adding new blog posts and pages, commenting, moderating comments, replying to comments additionally to the power to look at the stats.[23][24] Accessibility[edit] The WordPress Accessibility Team has worked to enhance the accessibility for core WordPress also as support a transparent identification of accessible themes.[26] The WordPress Accessibility Team provides continuing educational support about web accessibility and inclusive design. The WordPress Accessibility Coding Standards state that “All new or updated code released in WordPress must conform with the online Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 at level AA.”[27] Other features[edit] WordPress also features integrated link management; an enquiry engine–friendly, clean permalink structure; the power to assign multiple categories to posts; and support for tagging of posts. Automatic filters also are included, providing standardized formatting and styling of text in posts (for example, converting regular quotes to smart quotes). WordPress also supports the Trackback and Pingback standards for displaying links to other sites that have themselves linked to a post or a piece of writing . WordPress posts are often edited in HTML, using the visual editor, or using one among variety of plugins that leave a spread of customized editing features. Multi-user and multi-blogging[edit] before version 3, WordPress supported one blog per installation, although multiple concurrent copies could also be run from different directories if configured to use separate database tables. WordPress Multisites (previously mentioned as WordPress Multi-User, WordPress MU, or WPMU) was a fork of WordPress created to permit multiple blogs to exist within one installation but is in a position to be administered by a centralized maintainer. WordPress MU makes it possible for those with websites to host their own blogging communities, also as control and moderate all the blogs from one dashboard. WordPress MS adds eight new data tables for every blog. As of the discharge of WordPress 3, WordPress MU has merged with WordPress.[28] History[edit] b2/cafelog, more commonly referred to as b2 or cafelog, was the precursor to WordPress.[29] b2/cafelog was estimated to possess been installed on approximately 2,000 blogs as of May 2003.[30] it had been written in PHP to be used with MySQL by Michel Valdrighi, who is now a contributing developer to WordPress. Although WordPress is that the official successor, another project, b2evolution, is additionally in active development. WordPress first appeared in 2003 as a joint effort between Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little to make a fork of b2.[31] Christine Selleck Tremoulet, a lover of Mullenweg, suggested the name WordPress.[32][33] In 2004 the licensing terms for the competing Movable Type package were changed by Six Apart, leading to many of its most influential users migrating to WordPress.[34][35] By October 2009 the Open Source CMS MarketShare Report concluded that WordPress enjoyed the best brand strength of any open-source content management system. As of June 2019, WordPress is employed by 60.8% of all the websites whose content management system is understood . this is often 27.5% of the highest 10 million websites.[7][36] Awards and recognition[edit] Winner of InfoWorld’s “Best of open source software awards: Collaboration”, awarded in 2008.[37] Winner of Open Source CMS Awards’s “Overall Best Open Source CMS”, awarded in 2009.[38] Winner of digitalsynergy’s “Hall of Fame CMS category within the 2010 Open Source”, awarded in 2010.[39] Winner of InfoWorld’s “Bossie award for Best Open Source Software”, awarded in 2011.[40] WordPress features a five star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[41] Release history[edit] Main releases of WordPress are codenamed after well-known jazz musicians, ranging from version 1.0.[42][43] Legend: Old version, not maintained Older version, still maintained Current stable version Latest preview version Future release Version Code name Release date Notes 0.7 none May 27, 2003[44] Used an equivalent file structure as its predecessor, b2/cafelog, and continued the numbering from its last release, 0.6.[45] Only 0.71-gold is out there for download within the official WordPress Release Archive page. 1.0 Davis January 3, 2004[46] Added program friendly permalinks, multiple categories, dead simple installation and upgrade, comment moderation, XFN support, Atom support. 1.2 Mingus May 22, 2004[47] Added support of Plugins; which same identification headers are used unchanged in WordPress releases as of 2011. 1.5 Strayhorn February 17, 2005[48] Added a variety of important features, like ability to manage static pages and a template/Theme system. it had been also equipped with a replacement default template (code named Kubrick).[49] designed by Michael Heilemann. 2.0 Duke New Year's Eve , 2005[50] Added rich editing, better administration tools, image uploading, faster posting, improved import system, fully overhauled the rear end, and various improvements to Plugin developers. 2.1 Ella January 22, 2007[51] Corrected security issues, redesigned interface, enhanced editing tools (including integrated spell check and auto save), and improved content management options. 2.2 Getz May 16, 2007[52] Added widget support for templates, updated Atom feed support, and speed optimizations. 2.3 Dexter September 24, 2007[53] Added native tagging support, new taxonomy system for categories, and straightforward notification of updates, fully supports Atom 1.0, with the publishing protocol, and a few much needed security fixes. 2.5 Brecker March 29, 2008[54] Major revamp to the dashboard, dashboard widgets, multi-file upload, extended search, improved editor, improved plugin system and more. 2.6 Tyner July 15, 2008[55] Added new features that made WordPress a more powerful CMS: it can now track changes to each post and page and permit easy posting from anywhere on the online . 2.7 Coltrane December 11, 2008[56] Administration interface redesigned fully, added automatic upgrades and installing plugins, from within the administration interface. 2.8 Baker June 10, 2009[57] Added improvements in speed, automatic installing of themes from within administration interface, introduces the CodePress editor for syntax highlighting and a redesigned widget interface. 2.9 Carmen December 19, 2009[58] Added global undo, built-in image editor, batch plugin updating, and lots of less visible tweaks. 3.0 Thelonious June 17, 2010[59] Added a replacement theme APIs, merge WordPress and WordPress MU, creating the new multi-site functionality, new default theme “Twenty Ten” and a refreshed, lighter admin UI. 3.1 Reinhardt February 23, 2011[60] Added the Admin Bar, which is displayed on all blog pages when an admin is logged in, and Post Format, best explained as a Tumblr like micro-blogging feature. It provides quick access to several critical functions, like comments and updates. Includes internal linking abilities, a newly streamlined writing interface, and lots of other changes. 3.2 Gershwin Independence Day , 2011[61] Focused on making WordPress faster and lighter. Released only four months after version 3.1, reflecting the growing speed of development within the WordPress community. 3.3 Sonny December 12, 2011[62] Focused on making WordPress friendlier for beginners and tablet computer users. 3.4 Green June 13, 2012[63] Focused on improvements to theme customization, Twitter integration and a number of other minor changes. 3.5 Elvin December 11, 2012[64] Support for the Retina Display, color picker, new default theme “Twenty Twelve”, improved image workflow. 3.6 Oscar Lammas , 2013[65] New default theme “Twenty Thirteen”, admin enhancements, post formats UI update, menus UI improvements, new revision system, autosave and post locking. 3.7 Basie United Nations Day , 2013[66] Automatically apply maintenance and security updates within the background, stronger password recommendations, support for automatically installing the proper language files and keeping them up so far . 3.8 Parker December 12, 2013[67] Improved admin interface, responsive design for mobile devices, new typography using Open Sans, admin color schemes, redesigned theme management interface, simplified main dashboard, “Twenty Fourteen” magazine style default theme, second release using “Plugin-first development process”. 3.9 Smith April 16, 2014[68] Improvements to editor for media, live widget and header previews, new theme browser. 4.0 Benny September 4, 2014[69] Improved media management, embeds, writing interface, easy language change, theme customizer, plugin discovery and compatibility with PHP 5.5 and MySQL 5.6.[70] 4.1 Dinah December 18, 2014[71] Twenty Fifteen because the new default theme, distraction-free writing, easy language switch, Vine embeds and plugin recommendations. 4.2 Powell April 23, 2015[72] New “Press This” features, improved characters support, emoji support, improved customizer, new embeds and updated plugin system. 4.3 Billie August 18, 2015[73] specialise in mobile experience, better passwords and improved customizer. 4.4 Clifford Immaculate Conception , 2015[74] Introduction of “Twenty Sixteen” theme, and improved responsive images and embeds. 4.5 Coleman April 12, 2016[75] Added inline linking, formatting shortcuts, live responsive previews, and other updates under the hood. 4.6 Pepper August 16, 2016[76] Added streamlined updates, native fonts, editor improvements with inline link checker and content recovery, and other updates under the hood. 4.7 Vaughan December 6, 2016[77] Comes with new default theme “Twenty Seventeen”, Video Header Support, PDF preview, custom CSS in live preview, editor Improvements, and other updates under the hood. 4.8 Evans June 8, 2017[78] The next-generation editor. Additional specific goals include the TinyMCE inline element / link boundaries, new media widgets, WYSIWYG in text widget. End Support for Internet Explorer Versions 8, 9, and 10. 4.9 Tipton November 16, 2017[79] Improved theme customizer experience, including scheduling, frontend preview links, autosave revisions, theme browsing, improved menu functions, and syntax highlighting. Added new gallery widget and updated text and video widgets. Theme editor gives warnings and rollbacks when saving files that produce fatal errors.[80] 5.0 Bebo December 6, 2018[81] New block based editor Gutenberg[82] with new default theme “Twenty Nineteen”. 5.1 Betty February 21, 2019[83] PHP version upgrade notices, and block editor improvements. 5.2 Jaco May 7, 2019[84] Include Site checkup , PHP error protection, the all new block directory, and update package signing. 5.3 Kirk November 12, 2019[85] Polish current user interactions and make user interfaces more user friendly. WordPress 5.0 “Bebo”[edit] The December 2018 release of WordPress 5.0, “Bebo”, is known as in homage to the pioneering Cuban jazzman Bebo Valdés.[86] Classic Block.png New WordPress Page Editor.png It included a replacement default editor “Gutenberg” – a block-based editor; it allows users to switch their displayed content during a far more user friendly way than prior iterations. Blocks are abstract units of markup that, composed together, form the content or layout of an internet page.[87] Past content that was created on WordPress pages is listed under what's mentioned as a Classic Block.[88] Classic Editor plugin[edit] The Classic Editor Plugin was created as results of User preferences & as how to assist website developers to take care of past plugins only compatible with WordPress 4.9.8 giving plugin developers time to urge their plugins updated & compatible with the 5.0 release. Having the Classic Editor plugin installed restores the “classic” editing experience that WordPress has had up until the WordPress 5.0 release.[89] The Classic Editor Plugin are going to be supported a minimum of until 2022.[90] The Classic Editor plugin is active on over 5,000,000 installations of WordPress[91]. Future[edit] Ambox current red.svg This section must be updated. Please update this text to reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2020) Matt Mullenweg has stated that the longer term of WordPress is in social, mobile, and as an application platform.[92][93] Vulnerabilities[edit] Many security issues[94] are uncovered within the software, particularly in 2007, 2008, and 2015. consistent with Secunia, WordPress in April 2009 had seven unpatched security advisories (out of 32 total), with a maximum rating of “Less Critical”. Secunia maintains an up-to-date list of WordPress vulnerabilities.[95] In January 2007, many high-profile program optimization (SEO) blogs, also as many low-profile commercial blogs featuring AdSense, were targeted and attacked with a WordPress exploit.[96] A separate vulnerability on one among the project site’s web servers allowed an attacker to introduce exploitable code within the sort of a back door to some downloads of WordPress 2.1.1. The 2.1.2 release addressed this issue; an advisory released at the time advised all users to upgrade immediately.[97] In May 2007, a study revealed that 98% of WordPress blogs being run were exploitable because they were running outdated and unsupported versions of the software.[98] partially to mitigate this problem, WordPress made updating the software a way easier, “one click” automated process in version 2.7 (released in December 2008).[99] However, the filesystem security settings required to enable the update process are often a further risk.[100] during a June 2007 interview, Stefan Esser, the founding father of the PHP Security Response Team, spoke critically of WordPress’ security diary , citing problems with the application’s architecture that made it unnecessarily difficult to write down code that's secure from SQL injection vulnerabilities, also as another problems.[101] In June 2013, it had been found that a number of the 50 most downloaded WordPress plugins were susceptible to common Web attacks like SQL injection and XSS. A separate inspection of the top-10 e-commerce plugins showed that seven of them were vulnerable.[102] In an attempt to market better security, and to streamline the update experience overall, automatic background updates were introduced in WordPress 3.7.[103] Individual installations of WordPress can be protected with security plugins that prevent user enumeration, hide resources and thwart probes. Users also can protect their WordPress installations by taking steps like keeping all WordPress installation, themes, and plugins updated, using only trusted themes and plugins,[104] editing the site’s .htaccess configuration file if supported by the online server to stop many sorts of SQL injection attacks and block unauthorized access to sensitive files. it's especially important to stay WordPress plugins updated because would-be hackers can easily list all the plugins a site uses, then run scans checking out any vulnerabilities against those plugins. If vulnerabilities are found, they'll be exploited to permit hackers to upload their own files (such as a PHP Shell script) that collect sensitive information. Developers also can use tools to research potential vulnerabilities, including WPScan, WordPress Auditor and WordPress Sploit Framework developed by 0pc0deFR. These sorts of tools research known vulnerabilities, like a CSRF, LFI, RFI, XSS, SQL injection and user enumeration. However, not all vulnerabilities are often detected by tools, so it's advisable to see the code of plugins, themes and other add-ins from other developers. In March 2015, it had been reported by many security experts and SEOs, including program Land, that a SEO plugin for WordPress called Yoast which is employed by quite 14 million users worldwide features a vulnerability which may cause an exploit where hackers can do a Blind SQL injection.[105][106] to repair that issue they immediately introduced a more moderen version 1.7.4 of an equivalent plugin to avoid any disturbance on web due to the safety lapse that the plugin had.[107] In January 2017, security auditors at Sucuri identified a vulnerability within the WordPress REST API that might allow any unauthenticated user to switch any post or page within a site running WordPress 4.7 or greater. The auditors quietly notified WordPress developers, and within six days WordPress released a high priority patch to version 4.7.2 which addressed the matter .[108][109] The canvas fingerprinting warning that's typically given by Tor Browser for WordPress-based websites. As of WordPress 5.2, the minimum PHP version requirement is PHP 5.6,[110] which was released on August 28, 2014,[111] and which has been unsupported by the PHP Group and not received any security patches since New Year's Eve , 2018.[111] Thus, WordPress recommends using PHP version 7.3 or greater.[110] within the absence of specific alterations to their default formatting code, WordPress-based websites use the canvas element to detect whether the browser is in a position to properly render emoji. Because Tor Browser doesn't currently discriminate between this legitimate use of the Canvas API and an attempt to perform canvas fingerprinting, it warns that the web site is attempting to ‘extract HTML5 canvas image data’. Ongoing efforts seek workarounds to reassure privacy advocates while retaining the power to see for correct emoji rendering capability.[112] Development and support[edit] Key developers[edit] Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little were co-founders of the project. The core lead developers include Helen Hou-Sandí, Dion Hulse, Mark Jaquith, Matt Mullenweg, Andrew Ozz, and Andrew Nacin.[113][114] WordPress is additionally developed by its community, including WP testers, a gaggle of volunteers who test each release.[115] they need early access to nightly builds, beta versions and release candidates. Errors are documented during a special list , or the project’s Trac tool. Though largely developed by the community surrounding it, WordPress is closely related to Automattic, the corporate founded by Matt Mullenweg.[116] On September 9, 2010, Automattic handed the WordPress trademark to the newly created WordPress Foundation, which is an umbrella organization supporting (including the software and archives for plugins and themes), bbPress and BuddyPress. WordCamp developer and user conferences[edit] A WordCamp in Sofia, Bulgaria (2011) WordCamps are casual, locally organized conferences covering everything associated with WordPress.[117] the primary such event was WordCamp 2006 in August 2006 in San Francisco , which lasted at some point and had over 500 attendees.[118][119] the primary WordCamp outside San Francisco was held in Beijing in September 2007.[120] Since then, there are over 1,022 WordCamps in over 75 cities in 65 different countries round the world.[117] WordCamp San Francisco 2014 was the last official annual conference of WordPress developers and users happening in San Francisco, having now been replaced with WordCamp US.[121] First ran in 2013 as WordCamp Europe, regional WordCamps in other countries are held with the aim of connecting people that aren’t already active in their local communities and encourage attendees to start out user communities in their hometowns.[122] In 2019, the Nordic region had its own WordCamp Nordic,[123][124] and therefore the first WordCamp Asia are going to be held in 2020.[125] Support[edit] WordPress’ primary support website is This support website hosts both WordPress Codex, the web manual for WordPress and a living repository for WordPress information and documentation,[126] and WordPress Forums, a lively online community of WordPress users.

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